What are DOIs
Instead of long URL's, citation styles such as APA now use DOI's or Digital Object Identifiers. They provide a stable place to retrieve documents.
- When a DOI number is available use this format in references: doi:XXXXXXX
- Go to a document by adding the DOI number at the end of http://dx.doi.org/
Print APA Guide
How to Format Paper in APA
Excellent video giving step-by-step directions to set-up your APA sytle paper in Microsoft Word 2007.
Kindle, iPad & such
Until the style manuals catch up with technology here's what we recommend. For online and other electronic books follow the guidelines for print books with the addition of information regarding the format. Some readers provide location information that you can use instead of page numbers.
Instead of publisher information include the DOI if available or the source of the book download.
Davenport, B. (2007). Myth and fact [Kindle DX version]. Retrieved from Amazon.com
Davenport, B. (2007). Myth and fact [Adobe Digital Editions Version].
Formula for guessing the page number
You can also use the "search inside" feature provided by Amazon but dealing with page numbers is currently not practical with these applications.
For in-text citations add whatever location information is available such as chapter or location (if stable).
(Davenport, 2007, Chapter 2:1, locations, 59-63).
(Wallis, 2005, Chapter 5, Section 3, para. 7).