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Citation Styles  

Last Updated: Sep 1, 2015 URL: Print Guide RSS Updates

Citation Helpers Print Page

Citing Images

How to create an image caption (guide and examples)


Example for an image from the web

Fig 1. Allee im Park vor Schloss Kammer. Gustav Klimt. 1912. Digitales Belvedere [online]. Vienna: Austria. [cited 10 Jan. 2013]. Available from World Wide Web: (

Source: ArtSTOR Help>Citing


Print Guides

Cover Art
MLA handbook for writers of research papers
Call Number: LB2369 .G52 2009
ISBN: 1603290241

Cover Art
Publication manual of the American Psychological Association
Call Number: WALSH REFERENCE BF76.7 .P82 2010
Publication Date: WALSH REFERENCE BF76.7 .P82 2010

Cover Art
The Chicago manual of style
Call Number: WALSH REFERENCE Z253 .U5 2010
Publication Date: 2010

Online Citation Helpers

  • Citation Machine
    On this site, click on a citation format in the left column you want to use. Then the site will help you format specific citations. (Includes MLA, APA, Chicago, Turabian, and Harvard.)
  • EndNote Web Guide
    EndNote allows you to create and organize your personal library of searchable references to books, journal articles, conference papers and other publications. You can download references from library catalogs and databases and store the full texts of the references in your Endnote library.
  • eTurabian
    This website is intended to assist you in properly citing resources according to Kate L. Turabian "A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations" 8th and 7th editions.
    Keep in mind that your professor may have some specific requirements and the professor is always the final authority - among the multitude of subjects and universities, there are many traditions on how to cite bibliographic material.
  • Evernote
    Save your ideas, things you like, things you hear, and things you see. Manage images you've found online.
  • KnightCite
    Makes it easy to format references in APA, MLA, or Turabian (Chicago) style
  • Noodle Tools
    Makes it easy to format references in APA or MLA style. Simply create a username and password.
  • Purdue Owl
    Includes examples of MLA and APA writing and citing.
  • TinEye
    Reverse image search. It finds out where an image came from, how it is being used, if modified versions of the image exist, or if there is a higher resolution version.

Kindle, iPad & such

Until the style manuals catch up with technology here's what we recommend. For online and other electronic books follow the guidelines for print books with the addition of information regarding the format. Some readers provide location information that you can use instead of page numbers.

APA Examples

Instead of publisher information include the DOI if available or the source of the book download.

Davenport, B. (2007). Myth and fact [Kindle DX version]. Retrieved from 

Davenport, B. (2007). Myth and fact [Adobe Digital Editions Version].   

APA Style

MLA Style (right-hand side under "other online sources")

Turabian Style (scroll down)

Formula for guessing the page number
You can also use the "search inside" feature provided by Amazon but dealing with page numbers is currently not practical with these applications.

For in-text citations add whatever location information is available such as chapter or location (if stable).

(Davenport, 2007, Chapter 2:1, locations, 59-63).

(Wallis, 2005, Chapter 5, Section 3, para. 7).

What are DOIs

Instead of long URL's, citation styles such as APA now use DOI's or Digital Object Identifiers. They provide a stable place to retrieve documents.

  • When a DOI number is available use this format in references: doi:XXXXXXX
  • Go to a document by adding the DOI number at the end of

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Quick Guides

Examples of common formatting scenarios


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